To prevent muscle damage and injury, it is necessary to maintain a healthy state of the body. Regardless of what you do, what kind of lifestyle you lead and what kind of sports you like, you need to learn how to take care of yourself. Below are a few simple rules that teach you how to reduce stress, avoid muscle damage and always be in shape. Analyze them, adjust to your lifestyle and perform as carefully as possible. Live a healthy life!
Listen to your body
The human body is a complex and intelligent organism. It is capable of self-healing. It can warn us about what he needs. Sometimes it does this through pain, fatigue, runny nose, fever, headache, or dysfunction. The purpose of all this is to tell us that something needs to be done with the problem before it gets worse. The usefulness of these signals is reduced by our reluctance to pay attention to them.
Often, children continue to play, despite the pain. So we did when we were young. Many of us and now, feeling unwell, continue to work in the hope that it will soon pass. But with age, the body's capabilities change. It becomes easier to take damage, and it is harder to heal them. In adulthood, it is especially important to listen to your body.
Take care of yourself, listen to the signals of the body. If you are tired, stop working. If you get a cold or feel that you have a respiratory disease, take the necessary measures. If your leg muscles hurt after yesterday's work, stretch them a little and let them rest, even if you were planning to do a good job today. If you feel pain in the ankle, do not run a long distance. Suffer a couple of days until your muscles regain their shape. Work with your body, help it, and do not fight with it.
Let your body rest when it wants it. This simple rule will avoid damage. Lead a lifestyle that brings you pleasure. Then your body will allow you to be active for a long time.
Do warm-up before workouts.
When practicing any kind of sport, the muscles should be soft and elastic to perform the necessary movements. Anyone who has ever played sports knows how easy it is to damage a joint if you do not warm up. Any dancer knows that it is impossible to perform a good jump without first preparing the leg muscles. With age, our muscles become less soft and elastic. They contract and become stiff, which has a negative effect on the joints. The lack of warm-up before exercise leaves the muscles and joints defenseless before injury.
A great idea is to walk before a workout. You can add a stretch to this, and then the body is ready for action. In this case, the goal of the procedure is not to stretch the muscles, but to send blood to them.
Keep this rule in mind: warm up and walk before training. If you are determined to go in for sports, prepare your body for this.
Do the right exercises
Proper exercise is very important!
The easiest way to harm yourself when doing sports is to do the wrong exercises. Whatever sport you are fond of, seek the advice of professionals. Go to the gym or read the relevant literature. You need to use your muscles correctly. Return will be canceled: you will achieve in the sport that which you have not even dreamed of.
Train all day, not just during sports
Simple advice from fitness professionals is that adults should do any exercise every 30 minutes, and this should be done daily. The question is how to achieve this. Here are some helpful suggestions.
• Park your car further than you need to walk.
• If there is a choice between an elevator and a staircase, choose the latter.
• Take breaks while working at the computer and lean forward to stretch your back and leg muscles.
• Stretch the neck muscles while riding in a train or car.
• Stretch your muscles while taking a shower.
• When you reach for the bookshelf, you can make a useful stretch.
• When you are standing and waiting for something, move your body weight from one foot to the other.
• Balance on one leg when wearing pants or socks.
• To stretch your arms and back, try to carry the bag in your hand, not on your shoulder.
• Always ensure that your posture is correct.
• When lifting anything from the floor, be sure to use the legs - squat. This will help develop the muscles of the legs and back.
• Relax your body. Start with the muscles of the face, and then gradually go down. You will be surprised at how many muscles in your body are tense and how pleasant it is to relax them.
Air is the main food for the body. Take it as often as possible.
Watch how the baby is fused: all the muscles in his body help breathing.
You can breathe the same way when you are awake.
• For a start, relax. Sit or stand up so that you feel comfortable. Relax your shoulders, chest and abdomen.
• Now take a slow breath and let the belly fill with air. Breathe as slowly and smoothly as you can. If you feel that the muscles
belly, chest and shoulders tense, try to relax them,
• Now inhale deeply. First, the stomach will be filled with air, and then the chest. If your body is completely relaxed, you will find that it is inflated with air.
• Exhale. You will notice that first the air came out of the chest, and then from the abdomen.
• Try to continue breathing in this way. Relax. If you feel that you are choking, stop and continue after a while.
Try to train your breath in front of a mirror. Gradually, it will get better and better. As a result, you will feel much more cheerful.
Go on a low-fat diet with vegetables, fruits, and purified water.
Our body literally consists of components that we consume in food. Before you eat something, think about whether your body needs it.
Products worth eating:
• low fat: fish, chicken, turkey, beef, lamb, eggs, beans, nuts, seeds,
• cereals: oats yellow rice, barley,
• fresh vegetables and fruits,
• low-fat dairy products
• foods rich in omega-3 fatty acids.
Products whose consumption should be limited (rule: if you can't pronounce the name, you shouldn't eat it):
• products containing preservatives, additives and chemicals,
• vegetables and fruits grown with pesticides,
• meat of animals grown on hormones and antibiotics,
• sugar substitutes (artificial),
• products containing large amounts of sugar and flour,
• recycled oil and other fats.
When you exercise, consume enough food and water.
• A few hours before your workout, eat nutrient-rich foods that contain light carbohydrates.
• After exercise, it is important to eat protein foods.
• Drink plenty of purified water.
• If you exercise a lot or exercise, you should drink about four liters of fluid a day.
• Avoid drinking sugary drinks.
• Try to drink coffee no more than 1-2 cups per day.
• If you drink alcohol, do it moderately, it, like caffeine, dehydrates the kidneys.
• Eat fruit, nuts, cheese and low-fat yogurt throughout the day.
• Eat meat - it is necessary for the body.
Rest and sleep enough time to regain muscle
Sleep is very important. Let your body rest. Moreover, between workouts should take 24-36 hours. With age, you can not train every day. Set your body off.
Give the body time to heal the damage.
Nobody wants to take it, but everybody has a trauma from time to time. With age, recovery becomes harder and harder. Therefore, you should give the body time.
If you have suffered injuries, you need rest, ice, a squeeze bandage and external support of the limb. Medicines should not be used for more than a few days and without a doctor's prescription.
Do not use painkillers to hide pain
Many take pills to get rid of problems and pain. We have become a "aspirin" society. However, tablets act on the symptom, not on the cause of the pain. And the pain is very important: it warns of what may become worse. It is body language, and the one who knows how to listen and understand it wins.
Think better about the causes of pain, it will bring more benefits to your body.
Do what you are capable of.
Many of us start to play sports in order to feel the joy of movement and life, to become beautiful and healthy. However, over time, we forget that the goal was just that, and we are trying to achieve something more - to become stronger, faster. But everyone has a certain limit, and not everyone can become professional athletes. Those who do not understand this are starting to ruin: failure is depressing, irritation from them is growing, diseases appear. Think about why you came to the sport.
Consult with an experienced muscle technician regularly.
Over time, our muscles become stiff and less elastic. The best way to avoid this is to work under the guidance of an experienced specialist who can relieve you of the stress points (massage therapist, acupuncture specialist, etc.). If you do this regularly, you can prevent damage, because your muscles will be ready for them.
These tips will help only if you understand the significance for yourself of all that has been said. Make these rules a part of your life. Even small changes often give great results. A little change in diet, you will become noticeably healthier. In time, remembering that you need to relax, you can avoid conflict. Regular stretching and training will not allow pain to appear after an active weekend. If you drink a little more purified water, your organs will work better.
If you can’t believe that you can do all these things, try to do at least something and watch how you will feel. Your body will tell you whether you are doing the right thing and what it needs. Perhaps it will tell you that he needs more of these simple changes.
The human body is an integrated system with a complex relationship between the muscles. It sometimes happens that pain appears in those parts of the muscle where it should not appear according to the location of the stress points. Such muscles are called associated. When working with muscles in which pain manifested itself, pay attention to the associated muscles. They may turn out to be tense, and then you will feel pain. Take care of them - it will help complete recovery.
Muscles associated with pain in the neck and upper back:
Grudino-clavicular-mastoid Muscles associated with pain on the face and in the head: trapezoid
Muscles associated with shoulder pain:
Muscles associated with pain in the arm and elbow:
Biceps shoulder muscle deltoid scapula suture posterior cervical cervical head
Muscles associated with lower back pain: square lumbar Muscles associated with pain in the groin and on the inside of the thigh: ileal groin muscles
To aid successful treatment
Who wants to take care of the muscles professionally, should be able to use his hands as tools. Oddly enough, but with the help of fingers you can “see” what happens to the muscles inside the body. Hands will help to find tense points and relax them.
Hands and fingers can be trained to become more sensitive. For professional massage therapists this is necessary. Although fingers are a very good tool, most people do not own them.
Other tools compensate for this inequity when working with voltage points. Some of them are at your home - a tennis ball, a pencil eraser.
To work with muscles, it is necessary to know well the structure of the body. To do this, you should definitely get acquainted with the literature on muscle anatomy. After learning these basics, you can teach your fingers to "see." Good luck and health.
- During the rest of the muscles should increase fluid intake. Since the load increases its consumption in the body.
- Contrast showers contribute to an increase in muscle elasticity, since cold water reduces the walls of capillaries, while warm water expands.
- Massage promotes good blood flow. Due to this, the nutrients in the blood are better spread throughout the body.
Only by observing the frequency of training can you succeed in bodybuilding. If you do not give your muscles a rest, then chronic fatigue, mental disorders and other troubles are possible.
However, you should not rest too much. So balance is important.
In principle, it is the basis of the basics. Remember, friends. Waiting for your comments and successful recovery.
Do not stop training
If you have injured a muscle, a tendon or a ligament, you should not limit movement at all: movement will help you recover faster. Exercises increase blood circulation around the injured area, so that tissues get nutrients faster and get rid of waste.
In addition, movement provides positive stress, which improves the formation of connective tissue. This is important because connective tissue grows where it is needed, where the body is under stress.
If during recovery you will not stress the injured place, it will not build enough connective tissue that can withstand the load when you return to your previous workout.
Therefore, keep repeating familiar movements, reducing their intensity. Perform them every day if this is possible and if your physical therapist has not forbidden to do this.
Work on the bugs
After an injury, the intensity of your workouts is greatly reduced, which means that it is time to work on your weaknesses. For many athletes the following is characteristic:
- mobility problems
- bad exercise technique
- inability to breathe properly
- lack of aerobic endurance.
If you don’t know your weaknesses, just remember what you hate doing the most, or ask a friend what he thinks you should work on.
Train your aerobic endurance
Aerobic exercise improves blood circulation, including in the injured area. This means that the cells get more nutrients, waste is removed more quickly, and recovery is accelerated.
Aerobic exercise has a positive effect on the work of the nervous system: they increase the parasympathetic tone, which provides the body with rest and recovery.
Two or three times a week, do aerobic training for 60–90 minutes. Instead of the usual long-term cardio, you can use a series of low-intensity controlled movements.
Learn to breathe correctly
Breathing stimulates the lymphatic system, digestion, blood flow, and immune system. All this speeds up recovery.
Medication, pain and anxiety due to injury or surgery affect the autonomic nervous system and bring down respiratory patterns.Due to impaired respiration, the optimal acid-base balance of the body is shifted, which leads to a cascade of negative reactions and slows recovery.
Therefore, perform breathing exercises every day, include them in your workouts, for example, between sets. This will help you not only recover faster, but also improve your performance in the future.
Injuries to shoulders, wrists, elbows
With such sports injuries, you can train your legs, bark muscles and a healthy arm.
Train your healthy arm
Load legs and buttocks
For recovery, remove the load from the back: take a break from squats and deadlifts. Instead, you can do other exercises for the legs and buttocks.
Lunges with weight in one hand:
Add explosive exercises. They are well trained lower body and do not overload the back.
Jumping on the cabinet:
Jumping out of a squat:
Jumping out of a squat on one leg:
Knee and ankle injuries
It is more difficult to train with leg injuries than with injuries of the upper body. But it is still possible.
Train your upper body
Even with an injured knee or ankle, you can do exercises on the upper body. Here are a few options that you can include in your workout:
Train your healthy leg
You can do exercises with a healthy leg.
Train your core muscles
Injuries to the lower back, hips, abdominals
The hardest thing is to continue to train when the bark muscles are injured, as they participate in almost any movement.
Try to find isolated exercises on the top of the body. For example, the bench press free weights lying on the floor or traction with the support of the chest on an inclined bench.
Thrust with chest support on an inclined bench
Do exercises with light weights, low intensity and excellent technique. Such a scheme of work will help improve blood circulation and activate the parasympathetic nervous system. After working approaches, perform breathing exercises.
Initial recovery phase
This stage can last from several weeks to months. At this time, inflammation and recovery are constantly going on in your body. Your goal is to fix the weak points and at the same time not to prevent the body from recovering, but, on the contrary, to encourage it.
Here is what should be included in the program during this period:
- 2-3 a week, spend time aerobic activity.
- Perform squats, bends, thrust, presses and other exercises. Keep a very low intensity, low weight and number of repetitions, do not use a sore spot.
- Perform breathing exercises every day.
- Concentrate on your weak points.
- Eat right to support immunity.
- Sleep at least eight hours a day. Sleep is of great importance for recovery.
- Move through the day. Go for a short walk, do 20–25 air squats, pushups, pull-ups or other light exercises every two hours.
- Avoid heavy strength exercises, anaerobic workouts, exhausting training sessions.
The middle stage begins when you stop using painkillers and are ready for a more aggressive load. At this time, you need to adhere to an exercise system that will provide the desired hormonal response for accelerated recovery.
Alternate workouts of medium intensity with days of rest, and spend days of rest actively, perform aerobic exercises.
Here is an approximate workout plan that will increase growth hormone and testosterone, but will not overload your nervous system:
- Do different variations of basic strength exercises: squats, deadlifts, various presses, traction and pull-ups.
- Do a full body workout. Choose 3–5 main exercises and do 3–5 sets of 5–10 repetitions.
- Perform a superset of 2-4 exercises. Between the circles, rest until full recovery.
- Use medium intensity. Keep 2-3 repetitions in stock and focus on the perfect technique.
Regarding the number of workouts per week, be guided by your feelings. You must fully relax and recover from a previous workout.
Return to previous workouts
The last 10–20% recovery is always perceived hard. Here are the key points of this period:
- Slowly return to the same intensity.
- Ensure that the injured limb moves correctly during different exercises.
- Follow the technique of the main power movements, ask a friend to point out mistakes or record you on video to track out the wrong patterns.
- Think about trauma in the long run. It’s not scary to miss one season, it’s much worse all your life to suffer from a non-treated injury that repeats over and over again and reduces your performance. So take your time and do not take risks.
And you continue to train during recovery after injury?
Causes of Nursing
- Too intense training regime in which the athlete is working for wear. This is a frequent phenomenon among bodybuilders and bodybuilders, when they at any cost perform the number of sets scheduled for the day - repetitive strength techniques (presses, jolts, jerks, etc.)
- Sharp eccentric muscle contraction: may occur with a strong jerk when running, jumping, pushing a bar with insufficiently trained athletes.
- Excess load, incomparable with the level of training: often beginners at the first training sessions are laid out in full and immediately earn a cruel krepaturu.
- Very long breaks in the training schedule of professional athletes.
- Training with a 100% load, when, despite fatigue or pain, literally squeezed the athlete through strength continues to train, because he does not want to get off the schedule.
- Muscles whine a little on the second day after a workout, they become wadded, naughty, swollen.
- Pain is comparable in degree to the feeling of fatigue.
- Increased pain when stretching or contracting tired muscles.
This condition can last for several days. This is a common occurrence among athletes and should not be afraid of it.
Muscle burning in athletes
At the end of the workout, as well as at the end of the sets, slight burning pain in the muscles can be observed. This is also a natural symptom that accompanies the accumulation of lactic acid in the muscle fibers. When the overburdened muscle of the house rests, and for this quite literally half an hour, the concentration of acid in the cells will drop dramatically, and this unpleasant feeling will pass.
- Muscle pain does not appear immediately, but 2 to 3 days after training.
- The degree of intensity is pronounced.
- Pain increases with tension in a group of trained muscles.
Lagging pain is observed with irregular workouts with too long interruptions, as well as for inexperienced beginners.
Severely sore muscles
Intense pain that does not go away for more than 5 days indicates an excessively large load or its excessively rapid build-up. All body, arms, legs hurt.
This is a signal to the athlete that he needs to change his training method, eliminating the emergency method of achieving the best result, and move on to a more accurate increase in load.
The following symptoms indicate a traumatic injury that goes beyond muscle microfibers:
- Sudden acute pain in the muscles, which may be accompanied by clicking or cracking.
- The resulting stiffness, limited movement.
- The appearance of bruises and hematomas on the body.
- The duration of the pain is longer than a week.
- The increase in pain and swelling every day.
- Intraosseous pain sensation.
With such symptoms, you should immediately stop training and contact your sports doctor or traumatologist.
To understand the nature of this post-workout, or as sports doctors say, postponed pain, and know how to remove it, consider what happens in the muscles after a workout.
What happens in the muscles after exercise
Among athletes, athletes, there is a belief that the more the muscles hurt after a workout, the sooner the build-up of muscle mass occurs. Is it really, probably better for them to judge. We take a look at the clamping force from the muscles themselves.
If you cut the tired muscle across and examine it under a microscope, you can see the violation of its microstructure, the gap of myofibrils (sarcomeres) in the muscle fibers.
In muscle fibers, destruction occurs not only in the connective tissues, but also at the cellular level:
- cell membranes are destroyed,
- disrupted the distribution of sodium and potassium ions, which play a huge role in maintaining the energy balance in the cell, conducting impulses of motor neurons,
- cells lose water and protein.
This means that under the influence of a very large load in the muscles a real microtrauma occurs.
How does the immune system respond to this in the body? As for any injury:
- Intensive production of immune bodies (leukocytes, macrophages, lysosomes), as well as prostaglandins and interleukins (neurotransmitters of any inflammatory process) begins.
- The following are all symptoms of inflammation:
- pain and swelling caused by microdamages in the walls of blood vessels through the muscle tissue of lymph and fluid with a high protein concentration,
- protein accumulation in the liver.
But this inflammatory process is for the benefit of the muscles themselves, since they contribute to the renewal of protein synthesis and the healing of micro-breaks in the muscles.
How to relieve muscle pain immediately after exercise
Those who constantly train know that it is possible to relieve pain in the muscles not lying on the sofa, not stuffing myself with nonsteroidal drugs, but regular training, that is, creating the effect of repeated exercise. It is certain that the wedge is knocked with a wedge.
How so? Isn't it helpful for a tired muscle to relax?
The fact is that if you take a long break in your muscles, they will react to the next load also painfully, and will be restored just as long.
To adapt muscle fibers, that is, to reduce the time of their recovery, to accelerate the healing of microdamages, is possible only with the help of regular trainings. Mild pain after training is not a reason to stop training.
- But if you previously exercised with a full load, then in order to recover you need to reduce it by half, starting with a total warm-up workout and putting a 50% load on the muscles in which the pain is felt, repeating exactly the exercises that caused it.
- Included in the training for getting rid of pain is also necessary exercises for hyperextension (muscle strain).
- Finish the workout must be a hitch - stretch marks and light, soothing exercises that remove excess lactic acid from the body.
- You can supplement the recovery with a massage, hot tub or sauna, jogging in the open air, swimming in the pool, not forgetting during the breaks about your usual rest with relaxation.
- Thermal procedures can be applied not in the acute phase of muscle inflammation.
- With acute pain on the painful muscles you need to put a cold compress.
- The antioxidant beta-alanine and ascorbic acid (1 g per day) can be included in the diet.
- If the debilitating pain still does not go away, in this case it is recommended to take NSAIDs (diclofenac, ketonal, voltaren, nise, etc.). You can apply them both intramuscularly, orally and externally.
How to get rid of muscle pain after exercise for a long time
Maybe someone does not want to say goodbye to pain, considering it a necessary condition for building muscle. But most athletes today adhere to the trend of non-violent method, painless build-up of muscles. And even if this effect does not come so soon, this theory in bodybuilding gradually becomes dominant.
Muscle pain prevention
To prevent pain, the following conditions must be met:
- Each lesson should begin with a preparatory, active, warming up workout - this stage should in no case be skipped.
- Increasing the load is necessary, but it happens smoothly: for example, if you are engaged in a barbell, add 2 - 3 kg weekly. If pain occurs, do not be afraid to step back, reducing the load.
- Training should be completed with a good stretch.
- Never start training in a state of fatigue or not having slept. If you do not have time to relax, then your muscles are even more so: they will not be able to resist the load and will be injured, which means that they will hurt much more.
- Observe the correct diet: every day you need to consume protein, carbohydrates and fats in an amount that depends on the goal at this stage. For example, the required amount of protein:
- muscle building - from 3.5 to 4 g per 1 kg of weight per day,
- relief creation - 2.2 g,
- maintaining muscle mass - 1.4 g.,
- fat burning - 2.3 g per kg of body weight per day (for vegetarians 2.2).
- Bodybuilders also need to drink a lot to restore water balance in muscles and throughout the body. The norm of the daily amount of water for an athlete: 4 - 5% of its own weight.
Sore leg muscles after exercise: what to do?
The leg muscles are not some special exceptional muscle group, the same rules for relieving and preventing pain, which we have already described, apply to them.
- Knead your legs with dynamic exercises before the main workout.
- Well arrange a jog before the main training.
- Load your legs not sharply, but gradually: if you train your leg muscles in squats with a barbell or on a simulator, then besides adding weekly 2 to 3 kg of weight, you can increase and repeat in sets, starting with five, then add three to five repetitions every week .
- At the end of the session, do the stretching for the quadriceps, lateral and posterior thigh muscles, like this:
Before training, you need to do a warm-up to prepare the muscles and joints for future load. The best option would be to moderate cardiac loads that contribute to muscle tension and increase blood flow, which will provide the body with enough oxygen for the upcoming effective work in the gym. After warming up the muscles will become more elastic, and this will save you from stretching.
If you train in the gym, then as a warm up for about ten minutes, work out on an elliptical trainer or treadmill. If the simulator is not available, then you can run on the spot or jump rope. It is also useful to supplement the workout with bends and squats, sweeping arms and legs.
Most people do not even suspect that during one of the trainings a terrible thing can happen, for example, ...
The Achilles tendon performs two functions when walking and running. The calf muscles toe down to the ground ...
The worst injury in the world
In 2017, during a game of basketball, this happened to me: a bilateral rupture of the patellar tendons. Translating into clear language - complete detachment of the main tendons covering the knee joints, on both legs at once. Therefore, my whole subsequent life from this point on taught to determine what is good for the knee and what is bad for it.
Here are 6 lessons I learned from this experience. Check if you also have injuries or problems with these joints.
1. First of all, first of all - the biceps of the hips
The thigh biceps, though not attached to the knee cap itself (like quadriceps), but plays a huge role in stabilizing the knee. First of all, everyone thinks of large and powerful squares, forgetting that only with developed and strong antagonists we can work in the full range of motion and lift huge weights.
Have you had an injury or is yet to come (This is a translator's joke - approx. Zozhnika), break the system and start training not with a basic squat, but with leg flexions, backward or normal hyperextension.
There is no need to go through with loading, your task is to warm up the biceps of the legs, pumping more blood into them. Make several multiple repetitions of low or medium intensity.
4. Sit on the leg press machine.
If you have troubled knees for a long time, then you already know that it is almost impossible to work the legs painlessly. Uneven lifters squat through pain to the last, to the operating table. But the bitter truth is that the squat is simply not suitable for everyone because of individual differences in constitution, length of arms, past injuries, etc. Yes, imagine, the “good” and “obligatory” exercise can be harmful.
But leg press machine gives you more freedom: you can choose the angle of the body (and generally eliminate the load on the spine) and the position of the feet, the movement can be started from the bottom (that is, choose the appropriate weight for the concentric phase of movement).
I spent almost all the recovery time on this simulator. While he could not bend the legs at the knee joint further 90 degrees, the weight gently pressed, helping to increase the amplitude of the movement.
So do not hesitate to press your legs, even if there were no injuries and no, your knees will only be more whole.
5. Fix on negative movement.
To jump well, you must be able to land well. To run sprints - to brake. And in order to lift large weights, it is necessary to lower them qualitatively.
The negative (eccentric) phase of any exercise is almost always more important than the positive (concentric) phase - if, of course, you are interested in technical skills and health. The faster you lower the projectile, the more you need to strain your muscles in order to stop movement in time and move on to lifting.
Eccentric workouts are especially helpful in case of injury. For lowering, you can take more weight than for lifting, and work "harder" while you are weak. Or gradually restore the normal range of motion.
For the top, of course, it is easier to make negatives, but you can also think of something for the legs, for example, Christian Tibado teaches to press with two legs and lower one:
The same can be done on the simulators for bending and straightening the legs: lift the weight with both, lower with one.
6. Choose the right angle
If you cannot overcome the hatred of the simulators and abandon the squat and the deadline, then modify them to reduce the load on your knees. And I do not mean the stand or body position, but the placement of the projectile and the load vector.
Axial load causes more stress to the knee joints than appendicular. Nothing is clear? Scissors (squatting in a lunge) with a barbell on the back are worse for the knees than with dumbbells in their hands (with the same total weight).
In the case of a squat with a barbell on the back, it is better to move the load closer to the pelvis, using the curved neck:
Try squats, thrusts and lunges with a barbell fixed at one end on the floor:
In these variations, the legs remain almost vertical, and this makes life easier for the knees.
To work out the muscles of the back surface add thrust block between the legs, a horizontal load vector which is also extremely useful for the knee joints:
What do you need for muscle growth?
Three things are necessary for muscle growth: workouts with increasing load, adequate nutrition and optimal conditions for muscle recovery. The contribution of strength exercises to the final result is 30-40%, while proper nutrition gives 60-70%.
Choosing an exercise program is not as important as the regularity of training and the feeling of working muscles - however, in order to learn how to feel the muscles when doing the exercises, you need to have knowledge of how the muscles function and grow.
Nutrition for muscle growth
Muscles grow only when the total caloric intake exceeds the norm by 15-20%, and in the diet there is a sufficient amount of protein and carbohydrates. At the same time carbohydrates should be the main source of energy - this is important for testosterone levels.
Manufacturers of sports nutrition recommend enhanced protein nutrition (3-5 g protein per kg of body weight), but scientific studies refute this opinion. 2300 kilocalories and 80-100 grams of protein per day is enough for an athlete weighing 75 kg to gain muscle mass.
Selection of exercises: a scientific approach
With proper exercise, the muscles feel the load and adapt to it through the growth achieved by increasing the nutrient fluid (sarcoplasm) surrounding the muscle fibers. The number of fibers remains unchanged.
Muscles are like a sponge - contractions when doing exercises first “squeeze”, then “fill”. The pace of the exercise, the number of approaches and working weight affect the number of fibers involved, but the maximum amplitude is above all.
How many repetitions do?
The logic of the traditional recommendation “5-7 repetitions of the exercise - strength”, “8-9 repetitions - weight”, “10-15 repetitions - relief” is based on the involvement of various types of muscle fibers. However, this is true in bodybuilding, and not in amateur fitness.
Your main task should be a feeling of maximum involvement of the muscles in the work - if this requires 30 repetitions of the exercise with a light weight, this is quite acceptable. This method is recommended to learn to pull up.
Basic muscle growth exercises
Practice shows that basic exercises with a barbell (bench press lying, bench press standing, squatting with a barbell, pull to the belt, deadlift) are effective for muscle growth. However, the risk of injury when performing exercises with a barbell is higher than when training on simulators.
It is necessary to feel the maximum involvement of the muscles when performing strength exercises and to understand what you train. The choice of exercises is not as important as the technique - there is no scientific evidence that the bench press must be done exclusively with a barbell.
Choosing the right exercises
Strength training of muscles in a comprehensive program that works out all the major muscle groups (arms, back, chest, legs and abs) in one session is the best way to understand how different muscle groups work and what exercises are needed for each of them.
Alternate the exercise with the barbell, as recommended by the program, with the implementation of similar exercises in simulators. Try to understand for yourself what kind of simulator is needed for each exercise, feel the involvement of the muscles, then increase the weight.
How to train correctly?
First, calculate the total weight weighed in each exercise. Having made 4 sets of 10 repetitions with a weight of 60 kg each, you raised 4x10x60 = 2400 kg. Having done 4 sets of exercises for 12 repetitions with a weight of 55 kg, you raised 2,640 kg — almost 10% more!
Secondly, listen to your feelings when recovering, about 2-3 days after exercise. If you feel a characteristic pulling pain in the muscles, this is a direct indicator that the exercise was performed effectively, and the working weight is sufficient.
The choice of exercises for training muscles begins with learning what muscle groups exist in the body and how to feel the work of each of them. In addition, an understanding of the mechanism of growth and nutrition of muscles is necessary - without this knowledge, training will not be successful.