There are many pathologies that concern people from birth. But there is one congenital disease, the presence of which the majority learns only at the age of 15-30 years. And this is a coccyx cyst. This pathology is dangerous because at any time the tumor can fester and break, thereby triggering the development of serious complications that can even lead to sudden death. And to avoid this, it is necessary to know as much as possible information about what constitutes the coccygeal cyst and how it manifests itself. After all, only timely access to a doctor and treatment will help to preserve health and prevent the development of complications.
Before we talk about what is a cyst, it is necessary to delve a bit into the process of embryo formation in the womb. Every person knows that this is happening in stages. First, the circulatory system arises in the embryo, the heart, lungs and other organs appear, and then the musculoskeletal system begins to form, which includes not only the skull, spine and extremities, but also the sacral-coccygeal division.
At the initial stages of embryo development in this area is the so-called tail. When the moment of formation of bone structures comes, it disappears. But under the influence of some factors this process can be disturbed, as a result of which incomplete reduction of the ligamentous and muscular tails occurs. The result is the emergence of a tube in the interglacial fold, the inner walls of which are lined with epithelium. A kind of fistula is formed, which is called a cyst.
For many years she might not bother her master at all. But due to the fact that a person is constantly subjected to physical exertion, attacks of viruses and bacteria, sooner or later, inflammation of the formation occurs, which is accompanied by a pronounced clinical picture.
Important! If at this moment the patient does not seek help from a doctor, the inflammation takes on a chronic form and purulent processes will soon join. The cavity of the cyst is filled with pus, which at any time can break through and penetrate into the scrotum, small pelvis and circulatory system, thereby triggering the development of very serious complications.
Therefore, if you have a cyst, then it should be treated as soon as possible. But without resorting to the means of traditional medicine (in this case they are powerless), but with the help of an experienced doctor who knows his business.
Before considering the symptoms and treatment of formations, you must first talk about what types they are. Doctors classify this pathology as follows:
- Pilonidnaya. It is an education that is formed in the interhypatic fold. The reason for its development is an abnormal hair ingrowth into the skin. As a result, the body gives a response, which consists in fencing a foreign body (that is, a hair) from other tissues and organs. Thus, a capsule is formed, inside which this hair is located and the skin particles that have become dead during the inflammatory process. So the cyst appears.
- Dermoid. It begins to form in the superficial epithelium of the skin even in the period of pre-natal development, as a result of the displacement of the elements of the embryonic leaves. Includes particles of hair, nails, ectoderm, sebaceous glands, etc. This type of coccygeal cyst is the most dangerous, as it can cause cancer and proctitis (inflammation of the rectum).
- Epithelial. Formed in the subcutaneous layers of the skin and its appearance resembles a hollow tube (epithelial-coccygeal passage), the walls of which are completely covered with epithelium. A cyst also appears as a result of abnormal abnormalities during fetal development.
There is also such a thing as a coccyx fistula. It is formed against the background of chronic inflammatory processes in the cyst, and we can see it with the naked eye on the buttocks in the form of a small depression from which pus can periodically be released.
Considering in more detail the causes of the appearance of education, it should be noted that scientists still argue about the etiology of this disease. The thing is that some claim that the cyst is congenital and is formed as a result of an abnormal development of the fetus, while others say that this pathology can occur at any age and for completely different reasons. For example:
- Hematomas that appear on the buttocks after injury at the moment of impact, fall or surgical intervention.
- All sorts of infections.
- Sedentary lifestyle.
- Non-compliance with personal hygiene.
- Wearing linen from low-quality materials, because of what the skin stops “breathing” and diaper rash appears on its surface.
- Weakened immunity.
- Autoimmune diseases, etc.
Moreover, the first group of scientists, adhering to the version that the cyst is a congenital pathology, believe that all these factors only contribute to the development of inflammatory processes and the appearance of symptoms characteristic of this disease, which cause patients to consult a doctor.
And what is most interesting, cysts in men are detected much more often than in women. Although scientists argue that in the development of this pathology, gender does not matter. However, in the male population of Nigeria, this disease is not detected. They, on the contrary, suffer from cysts mostly women.
If the tumor is at rest, it does not inflame and does not fester, then the person does not notice any symptoms of the development of this pathology. The only thing that can occasionally bother him is a dull pain in the sacrococcygeal region during prolonged sitting or intense physical exertion. But it quickly disappears, as soon as the negative factor stops acting on the body.
Important! If inflammation occurs in the cyst, the symptoms become pronounced. There are severe pains in the projection of the tumor, the skin redden and swell. A person cannot normally sit and walk, he constantly feels a sensation of heat in the sacral-coccygeal zone.
A festering cyst manifests itself even more. The pains are already beginning to give in the lower back and lower limbs, and pus is released from the coccygeal fistula. At the same time, there is a strong inflammation and irritation of the nearby soft tissues - they acquire a dark red or bluish tint, itch and scaly.
It should be understood that the cyst is a serious pathology that requires immediate treatment. If it is not carried out, it can lead to the development of serious complications, among which are:
- hyperemia of soft tissues,
- necrosis of tissues adjacent to the cyst,
- development of purulent processes in the bone tissues of the sacrum and coccyx,
- infection of the pelvic organs,
- phlegmon (tissue inflammation).
Important! Pilonidnuyu and dermoid education, can trigger the development of squamous cell carcinoma! Therefore, when such tumors are detected, it is all the more difficult to delay treatment. You should consult a doctor immediately after the first symptoms appear.
It is easy to detect teratome - just look at the patient’s sacrococcygeal area. With such a pathology, a person in this place has a small depression, pressing on which pus can be found. Moreover, the skin around this depression is irritated and has a reddish tint.
But for an accurate diagnosis, visual inspection of the patient alone is insufficient. To determine the type of cyst and to identify the causes of its occurrence, the following diagnostic measures are required:
Important! If in the course of these studies the doctor appeared suspicious that the patient begins to develop cancer on the background of a cyst, an additional examination is carried out, which necessarily includes the delivery of the CA-125 tumor marker.
Treatment is carried out only by surgery. No drugs will help in the fight against this pathology. They only contribute to the reduction of symptoms and removal of inflammatory processes. But the operation sooner or later will have to do anyway.
Surgical intervention is rarely carried out if a patient has a cyst suppuration. In this case, even before the operation, anti-inflammatory and antibacterial therapy is carried out. And only when the cyst ceases to suppurate and the symptoms subside, the patient begins to prepare for surgery.
Preparing for surgery includes an additional examination of the patient to determine the level of blood clotting and the presence of other diseases that may be direct contraindications to surgery. To do this, take OAM, OAK, biochemical analysis of blood, ultrasound of the digestive tract and pelvic organs, etc. is done.
If the patient has no contraindications, the day of surgery is prescribed and the day before it is necessary:
- Shave off all hair in the sacral-coccygeal region.
- Take a laxative or a cleansing enema.
- Refuse to eat food.
If a person was found to have an education, then the operation to remove it can be carried out in several ways - closed and open. Surgical intervention is performed under local or general anesthesia.
With the closed method, doctors make an incision in the projection of the cyst, after which it is excised with nearby affected tissues. Next, stitches and a bandage are placed on the wound. Such an operation is rather easily tolerated by patients. However, after its implementation, the risks that a relapse of the disease will occur in some time, still remain.
Therefore, doctors often resort to the open method of removing education. The peculiarity of this surgical intervention is that it can be performed with a suppressed cyst, while the risks of further complications are zero.
During this operation, an incision is also made in the sacrococcygeal zone, after which the doctors remove the suppurative cyst and suture. But in this case, the stitches are laid in the direction of the bottom of the anus and not all over the wound, thereby creating a natural drainage.
In order to avoid large blood loss during surgery, excision of cystic formations began to be performed with the use of radio wave equipment. When soft tissue is cut, it immediately burns blood vessels, thereby reducing blood loss to a minimum.
When the formation is removed, the patient is given bed rest, which he must observe throughout the day. At this time, the patient may experience severe pain in the area of the sacrum and the coccyx, bruises and hematomas, which is natural after any surgery. To eliminate the discomfort, painkillers are prescribed by doctors.
Full recovery of the patient after surgery occurs only after 8 to 10 weeks. All this time he needs to regularly treat the wound, change dressings, monitor hygiene and shave off hair in the tailbone area until the stitches are removed. And remove them only after 4 - 6 weeks after surgery.
In addition, the patient is forbidden to take a sitting position or lie on a back for a long time until the postoperative wound is fully tightened, to lift weights and to wear tight-fitting underwear with hard seams.
If the patient follows the recommendations of the doctor, he will very quickly recover and in a few months he will be able to return to his usual way of life.
Where does the cystic cyst come from?
Information on this disease in the public domain today is enough, and if you want it is easy to find. The problem is that they suffer from cyst of the coccyx, mostly men. And they go to the doctor, and even more so with such a “delicate” problem, like a festering hole above the anus, most often it is not easy. And they postpone the solution of the problem, try to get rid of it with ointments, poultices, folk remedies. While the coccygeal cyst is removed only surgically. All other measures can only briefly remove its external manifestations, so that later it recurs and “crawls out” not at one point, but in many, forming multiple skin lesions.
Where does she come from a completely healthy young man? This disease originates in the period of embryonic development, and can only be congenital. At the embryo, at a certain stage of life, a cavity is formed in the interglacial fold, above the anus. It is an interstitial space, the walls of which are lined with epithelium.
By the way. The second name of the disease is the epithelial coccygeal passage. There is also a third, and the fourth - the pilonidal or dermoid sinus. It is also called the coccygeal fistula. These are not even different names for one pathology, but the fixation of its stages.
- When a cavity is formed in the epithelial layers, this is the coccygeal pass of the same name.
No matter how you call a disease, you still need to be treated. And for successful treatment it is necessary to find out the cause. And here, however, as with many, and not only genetic diseases, there are only different versions, none of which claim to be the absolute confirmed truth.
- The first reason, which is called the workers of medicine - a defect formed in the embryo, as a result of the fact that the muscles of the tail, once belonging to human "ancestors", did not completely disappear.
- The second theory, neurogenic, claims that the "hole" was formed by the endings of the spinal cord, which began to develop in reverse.
- Another version, confirmed by statistical data, hair grows into the subcutaneous layer (according to statistics, a cyst occurs mainly in patients whose hair grows in the place of its appearance).
- There is also a theory that calls the cause of the formation of coccygeal cyst implantation in the tissue of the ectoderm, which is formed in the prenatal period.
In addition to the factors contributing to the appearance (formation) of cysts in the embryo, there are reasons that activate the process in a man already in adulthood. Here the information is more reliable, since it is based on many years of research on the disease in its active phase.
The cyst bowl is activated in those who:
- leads a low activity, does not have sufficient motor activity,
- often sick with infectious diseases
- has hair between the buttocks,
- works on sedentary work,
- has a tendency to form follicles and fistulas,
- has small skin pores prone to blockage,
- often pereohlazhda loin and tailbone,
- different weak level of protective functions of the body,
- injures the coccygeal zone mechanically.
If you want to know in more detail the causes of the coccygeal cyst, as well as to consider alternative methods of diagnosis and treatment, you can read an article about it on our portal.
Symptoms and diagnosis
Symptomatology of the disease in the phase of its activity is expressed clearly and diversely. There are different options, but there are clear signs that this is the coccygeal cyst, and not just skin inflammation.
Table. Symptoms of the coccygeal cyst.
When any (or all) of these symptoms occur, the patient should consult a doctor to confirm the diagnosis.
The diagnosis is established by collecting history, examination and hardware research.
- First, the doctor listens to the patient and fixes the symptoms described by him.
- Then conducts a visual inspection of the affected area.
- Of the hardware methods most often used rectoromanoscope. The device is inserted into the anus so that the doctor can examine the internal tissues and get an idea of the subcutaneous size and localization of the cyst.
Features of treatment
Before listing possible ways of getting rid of this pathology, it is worth mentioning what happens if the coccygeal cyst is not treated.
The fact is that men try as little as possible to visit the clinic or go to the hospital. They prefer to wait until the problem “passes away”, or to take pills at home and use folk remedies.
Important! The coccyx cyst is not a disease that goes away by itself. It does not pass at all, if not to intervene surgically. Even with the transition to the chronic form, relapses will still occur throughout life, especially if there are associated aggravating factors. And the disease in the acute form, with the failure to provide timely medical care, may pose a threat not only to the health, but also the life of the patient.
Without proper treatment, the patient will be awaited by the following.
- The spread of purulent formations on the nearby skin. In this case, the distribution area is not limited, there may be all new openings (phlegmon), which are broken through by pus.
- Swelling of the skin will take monstrous dimensions. The temperature will rise sharply and severely.
- The patient will not be able to sit, and will hardly walk.
- Further tissue rotting will begin, osteomyelitis may begin.
- An urgent and complicated surgical operation is required.
- Weeping skin eczema will occur.
- Inflammation of the intestinal tissue is likely.
- Proctitis may occur.
- Complications manifest in the formation of squamous cell carcinoma.
Council You can fight for many years with the appearance of cysts with ointments and lotions, folk recipes, unconventional means. You can drive the process into a chronic form. But anyway, sooner or later, everything will end with the operation. Therefore, it is better to decide on surgical treatment as early as possible, while the moves affect the minimum area.
It is impossible to remove the coccyx cyst without deep cleaning of the epithelial process. The cleaning operation should be carried out by an experienced surgeon who will do everything carefully and minimize the risk of re-formation of the cyst and its activation.
The task of the surgeon in the course of the operation is as follows: the channel must be completely removed, in which all the moves are located, both the primary and those that occurred during the relapse process.
Important! The operation should be carried out according to plan, at a time when there is no exacerbation and obvious manifestations of the disease, unless otherwise indicated. It happens that during a severe exacerbation it is not possible to wait for its attenuation, because the patient has to save a life.
According to the plan, operational activities last about an hour, but the time depends on the degree of exacerbation and the stage of the cyst.
There are several options for deletion, their choice depends on the method of placing the course and its localization.
- The first option is to remove the brush stroke along its entire length. A wound is formed, which is fixed to the tissue bottom. A drainage is formed on it, which will contribute to the outflow of postoperative fluids and early wound healing. That is, the channel remains open until natural healing. The operation is done in the hospital. There also passes the postoperative period during which the patient must be under medical supervision. In this way, the coccyx cyst is removed in especially severe emergency cases.
- The second option - excision of the cyst completely, but without the formation of a drainage "bottom". When the surgeon makes the fabric stitching, closing the edges of the wound, he leaves a groove on the surface. It also serves as a drainage, helping to avoid secondary suppuration.
- The third method, the so-called Bascom Method. According to this method, the cyst is removed along the channel under the skin, in compliance with the vector from the primary to the secondary channels. After removal of the neoplasm, the primary canal is sutured, and the secondary canals serve as drainage holes for blood flow.
- The fourth, the Karidakis method, recommends removing the scrub along with the top layer of skin. This will allow you to move the affected area upward and bring the wound to the level of the interglacial line. This contributes to the fastest recovery and healing of tissues, and also significantly reduces the likelihood of relapses.
If you want to know in more detail the surgical and laser removal of the cyst of the coccyx, as well as consider the initial symptoms and alternative treatments, you can read an article about this on our portal.
A return to the former way of life and to work after the removal of a cyst is possible not earlier than in a month.
- Three weeks from the moment of operating the patient is forbidden to sit down. You can, a week later, lay back, but this should be done carefully.
- For at least four weeks, it is forbidden to engage in sports and weightlifting, it is also impossible to perform other active physical activities.
- If the operation was with stitches, after their removal, it is necessary to monitor the hygiene of the interglacial area.
- Wear loose underwear for several months.
- Twice a month for the next six follow-ups, it is necessary to be shown to the proctologist surgeon.
- After healing and returning to the usual life, you should change the habits and begin to lead an active life, doing physical exercises, observing the rules of hygiene and healthy eating.
To the question whether it is possible to get rid of pathology without surgery, there is only one answer - can't. Nevertheless, there are many popular recipes that are recommended for the treatment of the coccygeal cyst.
What is the point? Treatment with non-surgical methods can relieve symptoms and lead to remission. This will make it possible to make the least painful and difficult operation to remove a cyst.
Council With the recommendation of a doctor, you can use therapeutic methods of treatment, given that their goal can not be a complete cure, but only temporary remission, which is necessary for effective surgery.
Therapeutic methods are reception of anti-inflammatory medical preparations prescribed by a doctor, surface treatment with pharmaceutical and other means.
- an infusion of calendula flowers - gadgets are made for three hours up to one week,
Why does coccyx cyst arise?
The causes of cysts in all people are the same. As mentioned above, congenital anomalies of the human body are the source of the appearance of the coccygeal cyst. If during the development of an embryonic fetus, the formation of the subcutaneous fat layer was disturbed, in the coccyx region a cyst is formed - a pathological capsule, most often outwardly resembling an oval shape.
The cyst accumulates particles of hair, muscle tissue, as well as secretions of fat and sweat glands. Then it all goes on the skin through a small hole. If it becomes clogged, purulent processes and acute inflammations can begin.
The development of coccygeal cyst is influenced by a number of negative factors:
- diseases associated with inflammatory processes,
- a way of life in which a person moves a little, sits a lot,
- injuries, severe bruises in the coccyx area,
- lack of personal hygiene, especially in the coccyx,
- hypothermia or overheating of the body,
- low immunity
- in the gluteal region hairline is strongly developed.
In women, the likelihood of a cyst of the coccyx in the embryonic age is the same as in men. However, men complain much more about cyst of the coccyx, pain in this place, discomfort. Why it happens? The male body is more prone to inflammation, swelling, rotting cysts.
The coccyx cyst is a chronic disease, there are periods of remission and exacerbations during the illness. Often the patient gets better when the suppurative cyst forms an additional opening (that is, fistula), and then pus comes out through it. However, after some time, the discomfort comes back.
Because of the periodic attenuation of pain and itching, many people postpone the visit to a specialist, but this can not be done! If you feel discomfort in the tailbone area, be sure to consult your doctor to prevent the development of painful complications.
Symptoms of the coccygeal cyst
Since the coccygeal cyst develops from birth, its symptoms are not always noticeable. The patient may experience discomfort, itching in the coccyx.
Under the influence of external negative factors, an acute cyst of the coccyx begins. During this period, the following symptoms are possible:
- skin redness, swelling at the site of inflammation,
- drowsiness, weakness,
- in the area of the coccyx there are painful sensations that are aggravated by movement,
- appearance of abscess and discharge from it,
- under the skin, in the gluteal folds, tissues accumulate with the body's biological fluids, which makes the pain worse when pressed,
- increased body temperature.
Which doctor to contact? The surgeon or proctologist will help identify the symptoms and prescribe treatment of the cyst of the coccyx. If you see symptoms of coccygeal cyst, consult a specialist immediately. The disease is chronic, it can cause serious complications, so you need to start treating it as soon as possible.
How to diagnose coccyx cyst?
The cyst of the coccyx may already be detected after the doctor conducts a clinical examination. However, a medical specialist needs to distinguish a cyst in the coccyx area from similar diseases - osteomyelitis or rectal fistula. To do this, the patient is sent for x-rays and examine the rectum.
After the final results, a surgical operation or a course of medical therapy is prescribed. The specific method of treating cyst of the coccyx depends on the stage and severity of the disease.
Treatment of cysts on the coccyx
How to cure cyst of the coccyx? Surgical intervention is one of the most likely options for the treatment of pathology. There are many folk remedies and medical ointments for the treatment of symptoms of a cyst, but they will only help temporarily - the disease can progress. If you can not immediately begin treatment of the cyst, you can use the popular recipes, but you should not postpone the visit to a medical specialist.
Folk recipes for treating cyst of the coccyx:
- Mix a tablespoon of calendula flowers with a glass of water and set on fire. Boil a couple of minutes, then cover with a lid, leave for at least 30 minutes. Soak a clean cloth in this broth and for four hours attach to the area of the body where you feel pain. Then update the compress dressing.
- Take a clean cloth, soak it in propolis tincture on alcohol, then put it on the purulent area. Update compress every three hours.
- Prepare a mixture of a couple of tablespoons of butter and one tablespoon of tar, then apply to the inflamed area of skin for a night's sleep. Additionally, you can cover it with plastic wrap.
- Anoint the affected area with toothpaste containing needles extract. Leave on for three minutes, then rinse with water at room temperature.
Among medical devices for exacerbation of symptoms of the coccygeal cyst, the use of anti-inflammatory drugs is recommended: Diclofenac, Ibuprofen, Aspirin.
There are 4 methods for surgical removal of the coccyx cyst. The doctor chooses them depending on the stage of the disease, its severity and symptoms. The operation is performed by a surgeon under local anesthetic.
- Open wound method - use for excision of the started form of a cyst. The surgeon removes it completely, along with all the branches and pus, then stitches, hemming the wound to the bottom of the place where the cyst was. This treatment reduces the risk of recurrence, but increases the healing and rehabilitation period by up to two months.
- Closed wound method. The surgeon excises the coccygeal cyst, and when stitching the incision site leaves a hole for drainage, that is, removing its contents with a special tube. The stitches heal within 2-3 weeks.
- Bascom method. The skin is removed in the direction from the first opening to the fistula. The cavity of the first is sutured, the second is used for drainage.
- Method Caridakis. The cyst is dried up with mixing of the pathology place closer to the middle of the inter-colic line - this reduces healing time during the postoperative period.
As a rule, doctors prescribe antibiotics to the patient before and after the operation so that the infection stops spreading throughout the body and nothing superfluous falls into the wound. If the patient complains of the symptoms of acute pain, in addition prescribe a course of treatment with anti-inflammatory drugs (Ibuprofen) and anesthetics (Analgin).
After surgery, the patient must wrap the wound daily. After a couple of weeks, all seams are completely removed. Then care for the wound with iodine or hydrogen peroxide to avoid reinfection.
A patient who has undergone the removal of a cyst with the help of a surgical intervention should follow some recommendations: for one month it is forbidden to sit on firm places, lie on your back (or you should go to bed with extreme care), lift heavy objects, you should also limit physical exertion.
It should be regularly shown to a specialist, take a daily shower to maintain the purity of the interglacial zone after removing the sutures and perform epilation there for 6 months.
The performance after surgical treatment of the cyst of the coccyx is fully restored after 3-6 weeks.
What complications can occur from cysts?
If you do not remove the cystic cyst in time, the following serious complications can appear:
- the formation of new fistulas,
- eczema of the skin,
- inflammation of tissue fibers - phlegmon,
- education in the coccyx of purulent abscesses - abscesses,
- purulent lesion of the hip bones - osteomyelitis,
- inflammatory and purulent processes in the rectum - proctitis,
- purulent inflammation of the tissues that surround the rectum - paraproctitis,
- cancer in the epithelium of the skin.
A cyst in the coccyx area begins active development under the influence of negative external factors, therefore, when the first signs of disease and suspicion of pathology occur, it is necessary to immediately consult a doctor to select effective treatment methods. If you perform surgery to remove a cyst in time, the disease will not return.
Reviews of surgical treatment
Below are a few opinions of people who shared with our editorial board their experience of surgical intervention to remove the coccygeal cyst.
Peter Konstantinovich, 39 years old, Ufa:
«At the age of 29I had dissected a cyst of the coccyx at a local medical center. Then everything healed quite quickly, after a couple of weeks I started working again. In recent years, pain and inflammation began to appear between the buttocks, the doctors did not ask - it passed with time itself. A couple of months ago, he had a severe illness with the flu; as a result, the cyst again manifested itself (a nasty purulent abscess appeared next to the coccyx).Then the therapist advised to consult a proctologist, then I was prescribed a second operation to remove the painful cyst of the coccyx. In the hospital spent at least a month. In general, you should immediately contact the professionals of a narrow medical specialty to really cure the cyst, and not temporarily slow down the symptoms.».
«Almost five years ago, I had a coccygeal cyst. She turned to the doctor because she felt discomfort in the area of the buttocks while she was sitting in a classroom at an educational institution — it was terribly uncomfortable. Recommended to do the surgery. I was afraid, I decided on it for a long time, but I nevertheless agreed. Surprisingly, the operation was quick, forty minutes under local anesthesia, a week later the stitches were removed, and I returned to school. Now happy - no longer suffer terrible itching, I live peacefully».
«When I was a teenager, I was worried about itching, there were discomfort in the coccyx area, sometimes a rash appeared there. One day in winter, during the icy period, I fell, having hit the coccyx severely. He didn’t go to the doctor then - he treated the bruise with ointment, everything passed. However, after about a month the pain returned, there was swelling on the tailbone, which made it difficult to sit. I went to the doctor, the proctologist diagnosed the diagnosis (dermoid cyst), prescribed to take medication, and soon a surgical operation was prescribed. Healed the stitches for a long time after it, besides a scar had formed on the wound, as a result, its laser removal was performed. The doctor believes that such problems have arisen because he turned too late: he had to start treatment earlier».
The clinical picture of the epithelial coccygeal cyst
Epithelial coccygeal can be complicated or not complicated by purulent formations. If the flat keratinized epithelium of the internal capsule constantly releases waste products to the outside, then inflammation does not occur. If the hole on the coccyx (funnel-shaped hole) is blocked, the discharge accumulates, acquires clear contours and prevents the person from walking.
When an infection penetrates, the cyst of the coccyx becomes inflamed and a purulent focus appears. With self-management of acute inflammation, the cyst of the coccyx in men or women may not manifest painful symptoms. But later in the epicenter of inflammation again collects purulent infiltrate. It does not go out through the hole, so the acute stage resumes and manifests itself in the same acute clinic.
When acute inflammation of the epithelial coccygeal duct becomes chronic, the purulent exudate will be emitted in a small amount through the orifices of the course. Perifocal edema and redness of the skin will be absent. With the gradual appearance of cicatricial changes of the primary orifices and secondary (purulent courses are formed as a result of an abscess), the external inflammatory process during remission does not manifest in any way. Stops the discharge of detachable from the course (s) and there is no possibility for inserting the probe into the lumen.
Causes of cyst on the coccyx
First of all, if there is a coccygeal cyst, the reasons should be sought in the anatomical features of the organism, which were laid during the development of the embryo. Experts believe that the cyst of the coccyx is formed due to abnormal hair growth: a deep interyagodic fold and abundant hair cover provoke the ingrowth (immersion) of the hair into the skin layers. At the same time, an epithelial cyst is formed above the coccyx.
However, there are several weight unfavorable factors contributing to the occurrence of epithelial coccyx duct:
- sacrum and coccyx injuries,
- excessive sweating when the body is overheated,
- fever in infectious diseases,
- long stay in the cold
- excessive hairiness of the gluteal fold.
Attention! Sofa and office life also refers to the cause of the epithelial oil pressure stroke. There may be an inflammatory process on the projection of the coccyx zone for reasons related to decreased immunity, heredity, elementary non-observance of hygienic rules, blockage of skin pores.
Although the epithelial coccygeal cavity is a congenital disease, the symptoms do not appear unless the above-mentioned risk factors are present. The coccyx cyst begins to be disturbed during the development of the inflammatory process.
Symptoms of cyst of the coccyx are characteristic:
- discomfort when moving due to a foreign object in the crease between the buttocks,
- pain in the area of the gluteal-sacrococcygeal nerve plexus,
- increased pain in the sitting position (with pressure on the tailbone) and when walking,
- reddening of the skin and puffiness around the place where the cyst of the coccyx is located,
- the appearance of an epithelial cyst of the coccyx between the buttocks, symptoms: the release of infiltrate or pus,
- the appearance of secondary openings for active secretions from the cyst,
- scarring of passive cyst openings,
- the growth of hair in the skin above the cyst,
- signs of intoxication: fever, headache and drowsiness.
If the oil strain is festering, the symptoms of pain become permanent, tearing and jerking. Formed rounded infiltration in the fold of the buttocks, painful on palpation. You should immediately consult a doctor if you have such symptoms and begin treatment.
In the absence of treatment and the penetration of bacteria into the cyst of the coccyx, complications are manifested:
- secondary (multiple) fistula, phlegmon,
- weeping skin eczema,
- osteomyelitis (purulent damage to the pelvic bone system),
- paraproctitis (inflammation of the fiber around the direct intestine),
- proctitis (inflammation of the rectum),
- the appearance of squamous cell carcinoma.
It is important to know. When the pus comes out and cleans up the wound without treatment, the process of inflammation will begin to subside and disappear. Adverse factors can lead to relapse and chronic course of the disease.
To eliminate the progression of the fistula or pilonidal sinus, as well as the involvement of the soft fibers of the tissues around the coccyx in the purulent process, it is important to start the treatment in time. The first clinical manifestations (for example, openings in the interyagic fold, inflammation, fistula) become a reason for going to the proctologist.
In addition to sigmoidoscopy - endoscopic examination of the rectum, two projections of radiography of the pelvis are examined. Before treating ECH,
to exclude osteomyelitis, carry out differential diagnostics, then appoint an urgent or planned operation.
Treatment of the coccygeal cyst
If the course is not complicated by inflammation, treatment of the cyst of the coccyx is carried out individually. In the presence of purulent discharge from the holes, a radical operation is performed: one-step or two-step, which depends on the spread of inflammation.
During the operation, cutaneous fat flap with strokes is excised. To do this, stained the holes with holes to mark them or branches and not to miss anything. Two fringing cuts excised the course along with the skin between the buttocks, the fiber under the skin and up to the fascia of the coccyx.
In case of urgent surgical intervention, such treatment of the cyst of the coccyx is performed after excision by stitching the skin edge to the bottom of the wound. With an open wound, its drainage passes well, it is quickly granulated and covered with epithelium. After 10-12 days, the stitches are removed, a significant cosmetic defect does not occur.
If during a planned operation the coccygeal cyst is removed, the treatment involves stitching the wound completely. The basis for a planned operation is the remission of the inflammation process. In this case, the recovery period will be shorter (2-3 weeks), reducing the risk of relapse.
Complicated and purulent cyst of the coccyx requires two-stage treatment:
- locally treated for inflammation to reduce infiltration
- perform a radical operation.
How to treat a coccyx cyst with abscess EKH? Cure abscess epithelial course can also be phased:
- open and drain the abscess,
- ECH radically excised after inflammation regressed.
In two-stage treatment, the skin between the buttocks is excised more economically; it is possible to bring the wound edges to maximum along with its stitching. An abscess is opened with a single linear incision along the midline of the fold, even when part of the abscess is located away from it. Conduct a revision of the wound with a finger in order to eliminate all necrotic bridges, determine purulent leakage. An additional contraperture is applied to drain the leakage if the wound area is not sufficiently drained by a central incision.
To exclude relapses after surgery, prevention is carried out:
- carefully remove all elements of moves and fuzzes,
- protect the wound from hair particles, carefully remove the hair for several months after the operation around the wound and subsequent scarring,
- prevent premature accretion of wound walls and the appearance of bridges from the skin by holding loose tamponade of the entire wound to the bottom.
During suturing carefully check for residual cavities. In the presence of purulent leakages and the epithelial site of the stroke, the primary opening, hair, improper management of the wound after surgery, relapse may occur.
Radical treatment, proper wound management after surgery gives a positive prognosis. Patients are completely cured. It is recommended to wear loose clothing made of soft fabric for 2-3 months in order not to injure the postoperative scar. Hygiene rules should be followed and clean cotton underwear should be worn.
Cyst on coccyx in women symptoms
The reasons for the formation of dermoid cysts are violations of the development of the embryo, namely, a defect in the development of the caudal region. In the course of this, a cavity is formed, it is located thicker than the skin and practically has no external manifestations. A slight seal may appear in the crease between the buttocks, in a calm state, painless and without signs of inflammation.
The causes of cyst suppuration and the formation of the coccygeal duct (fistula) can be the following factors:
- Infectious diseases,
- Reduced immunity
- Mechanical injury
- Blocked hair follicles, pores,
- Passive lifestyle.
It is necessary to diagnose the coccygeal cyst from osteomyelitis or fistula of the rectum. Its characteristic features are:
- On the middle line between the buttocks in the coccyx appears painful infiltration,
- Hyperemia (redness) of the skin in the area of swelling,
- Pain when sitting long, walking,
- Body temperature may rise
- Feeling a foreign object between the buttocks
- Increased body temperature.
When purging and the formation of a fistulous course, the following symptoms join:
- On the skin between the buttocks, you can see a hole, it produces liquid exudate, serous or purulent,
- There may be a secondary hole or several holes,
- There may be scars in place of old fistulas.
Cyst on coccyx in women treated
If the disease proceeds covertly, without showing itself, then such patients do not apply for help. But if there are signs of inflammation, the cyst begins to grow, causing inconvenience - the disease requires immediate treatment.
The coccyx cyst refers to benign tumors, so when you go to the hospital you need to be prepared for the analysis of cancer cells.
Completely get rid of this disease can only be surgically, but if the patient turned in the period of exacerbation, you must first remove the signs of inflammation. Conservative treatment is prescribed:
- Antibiotic therapy
- Vitamin therapy,
- Local manipulations (treatment of the fistulous course with antiseptic solutions),
- Topical use of anti-inflammatory drugs.
As soon as the process leaves the acute stage (and this, as a rule, takes 1-2 weeks), an operative intervention is prescribed. It is undesirable to perform an operation on excision of the cyst of the coccyx against the background of inflammation, since it can lead to various complications: inflammation can go to the surrounding tissues and slow down the healing process, abscesses and phlegmon in the sacral area are possible.
Cyst on the tailbone in women surgery
Surgical removal of the cystic cavity and excision of the fistulous passages is a radical and the only possible treatment method. Therapeutic measures are aimed only at the removal of acute symptoms. As soon as the period of remission is reached, the patient is sent to the hospital for a planned operation. There are indications for which the intervention is carried out in the period of exacerbation, urgently, but in this case there is a high risk of complications.
The purpose of the operation is to remove the source of the disease itself. Surgical intervention is performed under general anesthesia, the duration is 30-60 minutes. As a rule, patients recover after surgery within 3-4 weeks.
Methods of surgical removal of cyst of the coccyx
- If an operation is performed urgently, an open wound method is applied. In this case, the cyst and epithelial fistulous passages are excised within healthy tissue, ulcers are opened and cleaned, and the edges of the wound are stitched to its bottom. This method prevents the occurrence of complications, but the healing time is doubled.
- At the stage of remission in the course of a planned operation, a closed wound intervention is performed. In this case, the cyst is excised, the fistulous passages are cleaned and the wound is sutured, only a drainage hole remains. This method reduces the healing time to 4 weeks.
- In case of multiple fistulas on the skin, the Basque method is used, when excision of tissues in the cyst area goes from primary fistulous passages to secondary ones. At the same time, the primary epithelial passages are sutured, and drainage is inserted into the secondary to drain the exudate.
- The method of Caridacis is most popular for removing cyst of the coccyx in women, when a cyst is cut out with a skin flap above it, and the wound is transferred beyond the midline of the interglacial fold. In this case, after healing, it becomes almost imperceptible.
The duration of recovery after surgery depends on the patient's condition and the method used in the surgical intervention. But there are general recommendations:
- Broad-spectrum antibiotics are prescribed,
- Analgesic drugs (Baralgin, Tempalgin),
- Anti-inflammatory drugs (ibuprofen, paracetamol),
- Dressing the wound daily, until the sutures are removed (10-14 days),
- After removing the seams toilet wound with antiseptics (chlorhexidine, iodine).
Within a month after surgery you cannot sit, sleep on your back, it is necessary to exclude physical exertion.
What is a coccyx cyst?
The coccyx cyst is a congenital disease that forms when the fetus develops in the womb. The risk of its occurrence can not be traced, some researchers believe that this is a genetic disease that can be inherited. However, direct evidence of this assumption is currently not found.
The coccyx cyst can manifest itself in two forms, which are quite similar to each other and have not previously differentiated.:
- The appearance of a greater number of fistulas and exits without a clear seal detection. This pathology is referred to as an epithelial coccygeal tubule, abbreviated as ECH.
- Dermo cyst manifests itself as a clear seal in the form of a small capsule-shaped tumor.
The coccygeal cyst has the appearance of a suppurative tumor.
The disease manifests itself in persons aged twenty to thirty years. Older categories of the population with a similar diagnosis were not registered, which means not the complete absence of a cyst, but its ability to independently remove excess accumulations of products of the endocrine glands without any inconvenience to humans.
It is believed that the cyst of the coccyx is a disease more characteristic of the male part of the population, but this statement is incorrect. The fact is that in men it appears more often due to the presence of thicker hair in the posterior crotch area.
The coccyx cyst resembles a hollow tube that does not connect with the bone structure of the spine, or with other human organs.
Risk factors and causes
The causes of this disease:
- Maintaining an inactive, often sedentary lifestyle,
- Excess weight
- Infectious diseases,
- Thick hair passage in the anus,
- Reduced immunity
- Poor hygiene
- Mechanical impact - falling on the tailbone.
If untreated, the disease can lead to more serious diseases.:
- Multiple fistula formation,
- Coccyx abscess,
- Inflammation due to infection of the blood with purulent secretions.
In addition to the above, a person will simply lose the opportunity to live a normal life, as in the event of an inflammatory process, sharp pains when sitting and also in the prone position are inevitable. Treatment will inevitably have to be carried out, but in advanced cases it will be more difficult and costly. A recovery period can be delayed for a much longer period.
Video: "What is the epithelial coccygeal passage?"
It is difficult to diagnose this disease, because most often the person has no signs. To suspect its presence only in case of detection of a rather deep cavity in the anus region with a manifested seal, when pressed on which may appear purulent discharge.
The most common symptom of a cyst in the coccyx is pain and pus secretions. One of the most frequent symptoms of inflammation of the cyst of the coccyx can be:
- Pain in the lumbar region, anus, coccyx,
- Purulent discharge in education,
- Increased body temperature above 38 degrees
- Increased pain in this area when taking a supine position.
The inflammatory process can manifest itself in several situations. Since the cyst tube inside is lined with epithelium, all the signs of the skin are peculiar to it - sweating, fat, hair sprouting. It is the latter that most often lead to the occurrence of an exacerbation, since they can grow inside the tube into the skin and cause the formation of pus.
As a rule, the assumption of the presence of the disease is made on the basis of the manifestation of fistulas that are two to three centimeters from the anus, from which purulent discharges arise. For accurate diagnosis is used visual inspection and sigmoidoscopy. Fistulas are probed to make sure that the tube is not connected to the spine or intestines.
Only after these activities, treatment is prescribed, which, as a rule, in all cases requires surgery. However, radical treatment is carried out exclusively during the collapse of the inflammatory process.
Several methods can be used to treat a disease, among which:
- Drug treatment,
- The use of folk remedies
- Surgical intervention.
The latter, as a rule, is inevitable, since this formation is not capable of dissolving on its own and requires the indispensable removal.
Drug treatment is carried out in order to relieve inflammation in the period of acute illness and includes: use of local disinfecting and wound healing ointments, taking NSAIDs for relieving pain, taking antibiotics.
However, it should be noted that with this disease, such methods bring only temporary relief and are not able to completely eliminate the cause of inflammatory processes.
Treat the cyst of the coccyx can be at home. However, we must remember that all actions in this situation are aimed at the removal of the inflammatory process. During the period between relapses, it is still worthwhile to turn to a general practitioner, who will refer you to a suitable doctor, and take a surgery to get rid of this problem forever.
For the treatment can be used:
- Tar. Mixed with butter in a ratio of two to one, and then make a compress at the site of inflammation at night.
- Propolis. The tincture of this remedy is poured a bit onto a sterile cotton pad, and then applied to the painful area for an hour. The procedure is repeated during the week.
- Pay attention to the recipes for the treatment of cysts at home St. John's Wort. For treatment, a dried or fresh plant is used, which is boiled in water for fifteen minutes, then spread on a non-absorbent surface. Then the patient sits on it for fifteen minutes. Repeat until the pus from the wound stops coming out.
- Plantain. Use fresh leaves, which are kneaded before the juice. Then they are applied to a gauze bandage and applied as a compress to the painful area.
- Calendula. Alcohol compress is used, which can be purchased at almost any pharmacy or manufactured by yourself. The tincture is poured on a gauze bandage, and then applied to the affected area for four hours. For a course of recovery, seven days is enough.
- Toothpaste. Only pasta with ordinary coniferous extract will be suitable. It is applied to a gauze cloth and applied to the painful area. The exposure time should be no more than ten minutes, after which the composition is washed off. It is necessary to repeat until the inflammation completely passes.
With the use of funds for the relief of the inflammatory process, temporary relief and delay in surgery can be achieved. However, in this case, the cyst will inflame again. Full recovery is possible only when an operation is performed and the cyst, together with the existing processes, is completely removed.
Coccyx cyst can significantly complicate the lives of those suffering from this disease, depriving them of the possibility of adopting the most comfortable position during work, watching programs and in many other situations.
Based on the above, we can draw the following conclusions:
- It is impossible to affect the appearance of cyst of the coccyx, since the disease appears during embryonic development,
- The coccyx cyst may not appear for many years,
- It is almost impossible to discover the coccyx cyst on your own,
- When diagnosing, tumor joints with spinal or intestinal sections should be excluded.
- Folk remedies and medications can only briefly reduce inflammation,
- The cyst of the coccyx can be eliminated once and for all through surgery,
- After surgery, the recovery period can take from one to two months, during which the patient is forbidden to understand the sitting position.
Take the test and evaluate your knowledge: What is the coccyx cyst? What are the consequences of the coccygeal cyst? How to treat the cystic cyst?
Types of pathology
This pathology has several types:
- Coccyx epithelial cyst,
- Pilonidal sinus (pilonidal cyst of the coccyx).
If we talk about fistula, it is the same epithelial coccygeal cyst, which is in the mature stage of inflammation. In the subcutaneous layers often develop coccygeal stroke.
As for such an education, as a dermoid cyst of the coccyx, it appears on the surface of the skin, and the pilonidal sinus is formed if hair grows under the skin. Most often, an x-ray of the coccyx is used to diagnose them.
The peculiarity of such anomalies is a long asymptomatic course of the disease. Because of this, a person may not know for a long period of time that practically imperceptible compaction is a serious pathology that can lead to deformation of the coccyx.
However, due to the injury, as well as in the case of blockage of the primary opening, the acute inflammatory phase of the development of the epithelial tumor begins. At the same time she is accompanied by a strong pain in the tailbone.
Causes of disease
First of all, you need to understand which cyst of the coccyx has causes. The main factors due to which the formation of the bumps on the coccyx begins, are considered some of the anomalous features of the organism, embedded in it even at the stage of embryonic development. During this, an oval capsule is created in the sacrococcygeal zone, which is lined with epithelium. It is possible to reveal a predisposition to a pathology in a newborn with the help of CT of the coccyx.
Over time, various particles of the epithelium or hair enter this cavity. Then they begin to accumulate in the capsule of this formation in the area of the coccyx. After that, they go outside, due to the presence of pinholes in the skin. However, in the event of blockage of such a course, pus begins to form. At the same time, inflammation of the cyst of the coccyx is possible, which is promoted by many different factors, such as:
- Damage to the tailbone,
- Diaper rash
- Non-compliance with personal hygiene,
- Long stay in a sitting position
- Weak immunity,
- Infection with various bacterial infections.
Symptoms and clinical picture
After the appearance of an epithelial tumor, a person begins to complain that he has a pain in the coccyx, which has a pulsating character and at the same time strongly hampers his movements. This pain of the coccygeal cyst is especially pronounced on the back when a person is sitting or lying down. If you try to touch this swelling, the pain only increases.
In total, if there is a cyst in the coccyx, the symptoms may be of the following nature:
- In the interglacial fold, an epithelial tumor develops, which creates the sensation of the presence of a foreign body, thereby creating a certain discomfort to the person when moving,
- It is also characterized by the appearance of swelling and redness, and there may be festering swelling on the cyst,
- It is possible to develop the process when inflammation on the tailbone will provoke a rise in temperature and will be very sick.
In order to treat the cyst of the coccyx with therapeutic methods, it is necessary to have a patient's histological analysis on the hands. Based on this, a suitable treatment will be prescribed, using various anti-inflammatory drugs, antibiotics of a different spectrum. They will help relieve pain in the coccyx and inflammation.
The use of antibiotics for treating cyst of the coccyx is impossible without costly examinations. These also include ct coccyx. Such studies allow us to determine the cause due to which an epithelial tumor appeared. If such a diagnosis is not carried out, and only an x-ray of the coccyx is done, then the drugs are prescribed for a wide spectrum of action. Not always treatment by them can lead to the necessary result.
The best way to cure such a pathology is its surgical removal. However, until the anomaly begins to hurt badly (until the injury that provoked the development of education was received), many do not understand why and why it is necessary to perform the operation because of this, in their opinion, insignificant pathology. It should be understood that no medical treatment will not completely cure this disease.
Here the question immediately arises, which doctor can be consulted if the tailbone is in pain. These types of diseases are practiced by a proctologist surgeon. That he will be able to properly carry out the operation, as well as monitor the further period of rehabilitation.
In total, if the patient was sent for surgical treatment, various types of excision of education can be used:
- When there is a complicated form of pathology, an operation is performed and an open wound is left without stitching. Due to this, no relapses occur, however, the recovery period takes several months.
- The option in which the wound is sewn up. The recovery period is shorter, but remission of the disease is possible,
- Method Caridakis. It consists in removing the formation along with a specific skin area. Due to this, there is a rapid recovery and significantly reduces the risk of recurrence of anomalies,
- Bascom method. In this case, the cyst is excised, and then sutured, leaving drainage. It is through him that the infiltrate will be removed.
This place also depends on how the pathology will be removed. For example, after removal by the Karidakis method or by leaving an open wound, there will be a large scar. If it is sewn up, then surgical intervention will be almost imperceptible.
The pilonidal cyst of the coccyx (code according to ICD-10 L05) originates in the womb, therefore, pathology cannot be detected immediately after the birth of the crumbs. Young parents need to be extremely attentive to the state of the child.
The embryo goes through several stages of formation. At the beginning of the laying of bone structures begins to lay the "tail". Special hormones influence the process to remain so, and not grow further. If at this stage there are any failures, the elements of muscle tissue are reborn in the coccygeal passage from epithelial cells, the cyst is a small cavity. She has nothing to do with the coccyx and sacrum.
Epithelium tends to perspire, sebum, sweat is gradually released. For this reason, a small hole appears on the surface of the skin for the exit of waste (located ten centimeters above the anus). In case of blockage of the hole, the inflammatory process is triggered, pathogenic bacteria get inside, a cystic formation is formed (which is larger than the previous one, has an oval shape).
Without proper treatment, the inflammatory process progresses, an abnormal secondary opening forms. Against this process, an epithelial cyst is reborn into a dermoid formation (includes dense cells, clear boundaries). Pathological education is clearly visible, it is felt on palpation. In the absence of therapy, the suppuration is spontaneously opened, which brings relief, but for a short period of time. All new tissues are involved in the pathological process, making the patient feel worse.
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The coccyx cyst is a congenital disease, but its symptoms appear under the influence of a mass of negative factors and mainly in men after thirty years:
- traumatic injuries of the lumbar region
- hypothermia of the lumbosacral region,
- sedentary lifestyle, as a result - a weak muscular corset, the appearance of various diseases associated with the spine,
- genetic predisposition
- reduced immunity
- abnormal hair growth leads to blockage of pores,
- the course of infectious diseases, the presence of inflammatory foci of the chronic course.
When forming a cystic formation in the coccyx, there are unpleasant feelings:
- there is a foreign object in the area of the intercapital fold, during movement there is discomfort of varying severity,
- there is a painful infiltration of small size,
- during prolonged sitting the tailbone hurts,
- body temperature rises significantly
- in the coccyx region, the skin changes color (the epidermis turns red, begins to peel off, slight swelling is noted).
Conservative therapy is designed to relieve symptoms, alleviate the patient's condition. But in the future, the victim is almost always required surgery. Therapeutic methods include taking antibiotics (a specific group of medicines is chosen by the doctor, taking into account the available disease-causing bacteria). An important role is played by the means of traditional medicine, which reduce the inflammatory process, stop pain, increase the effectiveness of medicinal products.
Means and recipes of traditional medicine
In relation to cystic formations in the tailbone area, proven folk remedies are used:
- calendula. Get calendula tincture in any pharmacy chain, wet it with gauze, which is folded in several layers. Fix the compress will help cellophane. Leave a compress for a few hours. You can carry out the procedure 2-3 times a day,
- decoction of Hypericum against the inflammatory process. Take three tablespoons of raw materials in two glasses of boiling water, cook for a quarter of an hour. Drain the obtained slurry distribute over the sore area, you can wrap polyethylene, ensure peace during the procedure. Manipulations repeat several days in a row.
- healing compress consisting of one part propolis and six parts alcohol. In the area of inflammation, apply a clean cloth moistened in the resulting drug for two hours. The course of treatment lasts seven days,
- tar. Combine a tablespoon of tar with two tablespoons of butter. Spread the resulting slurry over the lumbar region, cover with cellophane, leave overnight. The course of therapy lasts ten days,
- Hypericum based toothpaste applied directly to the area of inflammation. The duration of the procedure is only two minutes. This method is suitable for quick relief of pain, single use.
All the above manipulations should be discussed with your doctor before use.
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The only and 100% way to get rid of the cyst of the coccyx is its removal. The earlier the operation is carried out, the more favorable is the prognosis for recovery. Manipulations are considered simple, last only half an hour. Medic takes into account the patient's condition, prescribes local or general anesthesia. In the case of an acute inflammatory process, the abscess is opened and drained. After improvement, the operation itself is carried out to remove the cystic formation.